Feline Gingivitis or Stomatitis
Feline gingivitis/stomatitis has a complex combination of causes that may include infection with feline calicivirus
or, less frequently, feline herpesvirus. Some cases may have an immune mediated
component, including hypersensitivity to dietary or bacterial antigens. Concurrent oral, dental or periodontal diseases are likely to be important contributing factors.
- Feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus can be isolated by submitting oropharyngeal swabs in virus transport medium. A PCR blood test is also available for diagnosis of feline herpesvirus.
- Swabs for bacterial isolation can be taken for culture and sensitivity.
- Biopsy of the gingival and oral mucosa under general anaesthetic can sometimes be of value in differentiating chronic active gingivitis, eosinophilic stomatitis, plasmacytic stomatitis, neoplasia and other oral diseases
A broad range of options are available for treatment of feline gingivitis/stomatitis:
- Dental surgery with tooth removal if necessary.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used in preference to corticosteroids.
- Antibiotics are often indicated.
- Interferon has been used in cases of gingivitis/stomatitis but currently there are few results from controlled clinical trials to establish the effectiveness of interferon treatment in this condition.
- Dietary modification, such as the introduction of hypoallergenic or additive-free foods, may be beneficial in some cases of stomatitis/gingivitis.
Last Updated February 2007